Carpatho-Rusyns are one of the major ethnic groups of Pennsylvania. From the time they settled the state’s small towns and cities in the late 1870s until the present time, Carpatho-Rusyns have left an indelible mark on the state, and their story should be told. This blog is about a project that will do just that. Read more

Saturday, October 17, 2020

Upcoming Virtual Seminar on Carpatho-Rusyn American Fraternal Organizations

On Saturday, Oct. 24, 2020, I will give a presentation during the Czechoslovak Genealogical Society International (CGSI) Virtual Symposium and Annual Meeting:
Carpatho-Rusyn American Fraternal Organizations: Record Sources for Your Family History

You can find more info and register at the CGSI website.
Original material is © by the author, Richard D. Custer; all rights reserved.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Seeking a Research Assistant!

UPDATE (4/22/20): I already received two applications from most worthy candidates! But if you found this opportunity interesting, I will probably be posting another research assistant opportunity in the next few weeks. In the meantime, I hope you still enjoy the post.

Christos voskres! Christ is Risen!

2020 has been an unusual year, to say the least. Can we start over, or fast-forward to 2021? But really, I hope and pray you and your family and loved ones are safe and caring for each other in these difficult times.

Even though I've not posted here in 2020 until now, I've been working hard behind the scenes to finish gathering resources and computerizing some of my data. It started to dawn on me just how time-consuming the various aspects of putting it all together will be.

I want to start, as soon as possible, the process of creating the town/area maps for each chapter (community), and within many of the communities, I want to also illustrate where in the town (or city) the Carpatho-Rusyn immigrants primarily lived. And that's down to specific streets and blocks as much as possible.

Homestead & Munhall, Allegheny County, 1908.
The original Rusyn church in town, St. John's Greek Catholic Church (later Cathedral), was built in 1897 at 531 Third Avenue, then moving in 1903 to 10th & Dickson Streets. In 1914, some Carpatho-Rusyns joined with Ukrainians from the Russian Empire to establish St. Gregory's Orthodox Church at 237 4th Avenue in an existing Protestant church building, later building a new church on East 15th Avenue. Finally, St. Nicholas Orthodox Church was founded in 1937 at 903 Ann Street. During World War II the Homestead Works expanded and took over many of the streets in the original neighborhood where the first St. John's was built and where many Carpatho-Rusyn and other Slavic and Hungarian immigrants lived. My goal is to map not just the churches' locations in the height of the immigrant era, but the Rusyn-owned businesses and clubs and the primary streets and blocks where Carpatho-Rusyns lived.

Naturalization document showing home address of a Carpatho-Rusyn immigrant in Duquesne, Allegheny County.

Some of this information is available in the church records I've gathered, and another good source is census records, which I haven't made extensive use of. But what I do have, numbering into the many hundreds, is naturalization documents. These tend to give the full address of the prospective citizen. The challenge is to sort through them and document the addresses in order to be able to map them. Realizing that this could be quite time-consuming, I hope to find a volunteer research analyst who can do that and provide me with some kind of database and report from which the specific settlement area in each town can be mapped.

Note I said "volunteer" -- but that doesn't mean you won't be compensated. Successful completion of the agreed-upon work plan will guarantee you a copy of the finished book. (I'm not sure how to do this beyond a promise / gentlemen's/gentlewomen's agreement, so if we are already friends or acquaintances it can be an easier mutual trust by which we each benefit as intended.)

So, if this sounds interesting to you, and if these specifics keep you interested, please get in touch (via Facebook or at and we can discuss it further.
  • You'll work from naturalization documents I've gathered from county courthouses and online.
  • I will also supply you with immigrant household addresses I've gathered from church records.
  • You are welcome to make supplemental use of census data depending on any access you might have to online sources (Ancestry, FamilySearch, etc.), but this is not required.
  • Ideally, you will enter the immigrant's name and address into an Excel sheet or other database/spreadsheet format, but we will discuss the specific requirements (they will be the minimum required to be able to do the mapping).
  • You don't have to read any Slavic language; you may have to decipher challenging English handwriting depending on the naturalization document, but most are (mercifully!) typed.
  • You won't create the maps, but the data you compile will be an essential input for the cartographer.

There is a chance for follow-on research that would be paid work, pending satisfactory completion of this project.

And lastly, if you successfully complete this project, you will be credited in the book, which, as mentioned above, you will receive a gratis copy of upon publication.

Looking forward to hearing from you!

Original material is © by the author, Richard D. Custer; all rights reserved.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Eternal Memory (Вічная памят!) to a dear Oral History Interviewee

In May 2018 I was privileged to conduct an interview with Olga (Krasulski) Yudisky, probably the oldest resident of "Polander Hill" (which 100 years ago was mostly populated by Carpatho-Rusyns/Lemkos), the daughter of a Lemko immigrant father and an American-born, Lemko mother, and a lifelong member of the historic St. Vladimir Greek Catholic Church of Alden.

"Aunt Olga" went to her eternal reward on November 28, 2019. With condolences to her family, I add my prayer that God grant to her a blessed repose and eternal memory -- Вічная єй памят!

Olga Krasulski Yudisky, 96, of Alden, passed away Thursday, Nov. 28, 2019, in Wilkes-Barre General Hospital.

Born in Alden on July 24, 1923, Olga was the daughter of John and Anna Rudowski Krasulski.

Olga was preceded in death by her husband of 21 years, John A. Yudisky; brother, John Krasulski; and sisters, Mary Krynick, Martha Krasulski, Helen Wall, Betty Kozik, and Anna Charnuska.

She is survived by siblings, Emily Weisberg, Waterbury, Conn.; and Andrew Krasulski, Florida.

Olga is survived by her children, Dennis Yudisky and wife, Diane; Linda Wheeler and husband, Shaun, Hamilton, Ohio; as well as her beloved grandchildren, Captain Holly Yudisky of the United States Navy and husband, Bryan Slutman, Arlington, Tenn.; Dr. Lauren Kuryloski, Buffalo, N.Y.; and John C. Wheeler, Sherman Oaks, Calif.

Olga was a graduate of the Newport High School, Class of 1941, and after graduation she worked as a lab technician at Vinaly Lite in Piscataway, N.J. Upon returning to Northeast Pennsylvania, Olga worked as an accomplished seamstress, where her services were in high demand. Olga was active in her community, serving as a member of the Luzerne County Historical Society and coordinator for the Luzerne County Folk Festival. She was a devout member of St. Nicholas Greek Catholic Ukrainian Church, and participated in the League of Ukrainian Catholics and the Sacred Heart Society. Olga will be dearly missed by her loving family, many friends, and the countless community members who knew her.

A Divine Liturgy will be held at 10 a.m. Wednesday in St. Nicholas Church, Glen Lyon.

Friends may call from 5 to 7 p.m. Tuesday. A Parastas service will be held at 6 p.m. with the Rev. Roman Petryshak. Olga will be laid to rest in the parish cemetery.

Original material is © by the author, Richard D. Custer; all rights reserved.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The 2019 Memorial Day Weekend Research Trip (The Last One?)

Another Memorial Day Weekend has come and gone, and as has become my custom, I extended it a few days and made a research trip out of it. Again as per custom, I began in central PA and wound up in northeastern PA for a few days, also attending the Memorial Day Pilgrimage at St. Tikhon’s Monastery. With a conveniently located motel in Dunmore as my base, my activities were mostly in the Scranton and Wilkes-Barre area, followed by a few visits around Pottsville to close out the trip.

But back to the beginning. Heading north to PA from DC typically leads me to Somerset, Cambria, Indiana, and Huntingdon Counties. I began this trip with a stop in Wood (once upon a time known as Woodvale) in Huntingdon County. I wanted to take some new and hopefully better photos of the inside of the vintage St. Michael's Orthodox Church, and parishioner Susan Pawuk graciously met me there and opened the church.

She also provided me with the parish's 2017 centennial booklet, which had some valuable photos inside. Susan's brother Ronald has been a Facebook friend for a while, so I was glad to make a personal connection with the family, who are now among only a few local parishioners of St. Michael's.

I then headed to Patton, Cambria County, near my mother's homestead in Barnesboro (now known as Northern Cambria), to meet with the current pastor of Patton's Ss. Peter & Paul Byzantine Catholic Church and our family parish, St. John's Byzantine Catholic Church in Northern Cambria. Father Vasyl Polyak is a Carpatho-Rusyn native of Užhorod and came to the U.S. to serve our churches several years ago.

Again taking "improved" photos of the inside of the Patton church, Fr. Vasyl also supplied me with a DVD to commemorate the parish's history, and later emailed me a digital copy of the historic old photo of the parish and its congregation, which was taken from a newspaper.

The hamlet of Dixonville in northern Indiana County was my next stop; parishioner Maureen (Betsa) Cornman, while unavailable to meet me there in person, graciously arranged for the church to be open, for a copy of the parish's 1915 centennial booklet to be set out for me, and for a bounty of historical photographs available for me to scan. It was encouraging to see a parish that's in a fairly out-of-the-way place still active and clearly proud of who they are. (Although most of its history has been as a Ukrainian Orthodox church, it was originally a Greek Catholic church tied to the mainly-Subcarpathian Rusyn St. Michael's Church in neighboring Clymer, and was actually a parish of the Pittsburgh Greek Catholic Exarchate until the mid-1920s. Most of its families, though, came from transitional Lemko-Bojko villages of Lisko County in southeastern Poland—within Carpathian Rus' but whose American descendants and those who remained in the homeland mostly came to consider themselves Ukrainians.) As part of the "circle of life," it was Maureen's parents George and Ann Betsa whose home at the base of the hill where the church now stands and whose porch I sat on and with whom I first discussed the history of St. John's parish way back in the 1990s when just beginning this project. George and Ann have gone on to eternal life, but their legacy lives on in a wonderful way.

Monday, June 17, 2019

Let's Get Reacquainted!

Just because it may be a long time between blog posts doesn't mean things aren't happening. It's just that these last few months it has been easier for me to post quick updates, and share interesting relevant content, on the Carpatho-Rusyns of Pennsylvania Facebook page.

A few months ago I added the Facebook gadget in the right-rail of this blog so hopefully, dear readers, you have noticed that there is activity happening on my end, just not in the form of full-length blog posts.

My recent activities have included the following:
  • I'm continuing to work on building my databases of fraternal benefit society (and similar organization) lodges, and perhaps most importantly, of the places in Pennsylvania Carpatho-Rusyn immigrants settled, by county and region.

  • On April 20, Great & Holy Saturday for most Byzantine/Greek Catholics in America, I took a ride across a portion of the cradle of the Carpatho-Rusyn immigration in the U.S. — Schuylkill and Luzerne Counties. Some, not quite most, of the churches of Carpatho-Rusyn origin were open that day for services or for people to spend time in prayer at the “grave” where the burial shroud (плащаница - plaščanica) of Jesus is displayed until the Resurrection services in the evening/night or Sunday morning. I posted quite a few of the photos on the Carpatho-Rusyns of Pennsylvania Facebook page.

  • I applied for the Grant-in-Aid Award of the Immigration History Research Center Archives at the University of Minnesota so I can soon, I hope, return to the IHRC Archives for one more visit to do research with early Carpatho-Rusyn (and Ukrainian / Slovak / Russian) periodicals. (The IHRC Archives has much of this sort of material not available anywhere else, and much of that was published in Pennsylvania; their collections are not only related to Minnesota!)

  • I'm continuing to discover new and fascinating articles and go down rabbit holes on, and occasionally readers are sending me their discoveries too, for which I'm very grateful!
  • Again this year I'll be on a panel at the Annual Convention of the Association for Slavic, East European, & Eurasian Studies (ASEEES), this time in San Francisco in November. The panel title is "Documenting Lives of Carpatho-Rusyns and Their Neighbors in Subcarpathian Rus’ and Beyond" and my paper will be "A Carpatho-Rusyn Village’s American Conversion to Orthodoxy: Statistical Analysis Reveals Life Narratives." This paper draws on my research and experience of giving the St. Alexis (Toth) Lecture in 2018 at St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral in Minneapolis.

  • And last but not least, I'm actually writing text for the book. Finally. I'm preparing the introductory essays that will present an overview of Carpatho-Rusyn life in Pennsylvania, and a synopsis of Rusyn history in each of the state's regions that will form the sections of the book.
I did go on my usual Memorial Day Weekend research trip last month, which I will blog about in the next few days. 

Original material is © by the author, Richard D. Custer; all rights reserved.

Saturday, January 5, 2019

The St. Nicholas Greek Catholic Russian Aid Society of Allentown

Original St. Michael Greek Catholic Church
at Green St. & Ridge Ave.
Carpatho-Rusyns settled in Allentown, Lehigh County, in the late 1890s, but were not present in large numbers until around 1905. Two Greek Catholic parishes were founded in the Sixth Ward, in 1907-08 (St. Michael the Archangel), at Green Street and Ridge Avenue, and a Galician offshoot founded by Lemkos and Ukrainians in 1909-10 (St. Mary's Immaculate Conception) on Front & Furnace Streets, shortly thereafter building a church on Fullerton Avenue. This was a neighborhood largely made up of Central European immigrants, not just Carpatho-Rusyns and Galician Ukrainians, but also Slovaks, Poles, and Hungarians.

In the years to follow, Carpatho-Rusyns would also be involved in founding a short-lived Russian Orthodox parish (also named for St. Michael), and later an independent Greek Catholic parish (St. John the Baptist, on N. 2nd Street). That church eventually left the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese and joined the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Passaic as St. Andrew Byzantine Catholic Church (the story behind this is an unfortunate one, the details of which I'll leave for my book); a portion of its members founded Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary Orthodox Greek Catholic Church which established itself in a former synagogue at the prominent corner of North 6th and Tilghman Streets. Meanwhile, St. Mary's Immaculate Conception (Galician) Greek Catholic Church would lead a movement to establish a Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the U.S. in the 1920s, and today the parish is known as St. Mary's, Protection of the Holy Theotokos Ukrainian Orthodox Church.

Other than lodges of fraternal organizations like the Greek Catholic Union and the Russian Brotherhood Organization, the main Carpatho-Rusyn social organization in this community was the St. Nicholas Greek Catholic Russian Aid Society, founded in 1919. I knew about this group and its club building, but did not know its history. A few days ago I searched newspapers-dot-com to see what kind of articles there were about it. It yielded no less than 40 articles about the organization, many of which provide a very useful body of information on its history and activities. (I only wish the accompanying photos were better.)

For example, this article provides a few details of its founding.

The Morning Call, October 28, 1945

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

History Comes Full Circle: Homeland–Pennsylvania–Homeland

Many Carpatho-Rusyn villages in the European homeland have historical monographs covering the origins, life, and culture of the village and its people. Many of them are extremely well done, and some of them include what from my perspective is essential to telling the whole story – the life of the village natives in emigration. I've been able to make a significant contribution to that in the monograph on one village dear to my heart. And now I can say I've played a small part in helping with another.

Petro Trochanovskij's recently-published Book of Bilcareva (Книга Білцаревы), about Bilcareva/Binczarowa, old Grybów County in the Lemko Region of Austrian Galicia, present-day Poland, is hands-down the best Carpatho-Rusyn village history that has ever been published. The contents – almost entirely in Lemko Rusyn – are extremely detailed and comprehensive, and the book is beautiful to look at and compelling to read.

The contents of this magnificent book include:
  • Village history: topographical maps with the native names of hills and sections; the earliest metrical records; a list of residents in the 1770s-1780s; and much more.
  • Life of the village (before WWII) in images: people, life and death, the church, chapels/wayside crosses, etc.
  • Life of Bilcareva natives in emigration, especially the United States.
  • Life of Bilcareva villagers in exile in Poland, return visits to Bilcareva, creation of a memorial cross, and the compilation of the book.
  • Culture of Bilcareva and the life and works of notable Bilcareva natives throughout history and their artistry – music, poetry, woodcuts, woodwork, etc.
This book stands out from most village histories in the amount of attention given to the village natives' "diaspora" experience. As with the book about my Rusyn grandmother's native village, I played a part in this one.